What is IP Address? How does it work?

IP-address (Internet Protocol Address) is a unique numerical identifier of a specific device in a computer network built on the basis of the TCP / IP protocol. To work on the Internet requires its global uniqueness. For a private network, it is enough to exclude matches in the local space.

IP address format and how it looks

An IP address on the Internet can be represented in one of two digital formats, which depends on the type of protocol used.

  • IPv4 (Internet Protocol v. 4) – an address recorded in 32-bit format. It has the form of four 8-bit numbers (minimum 0, maximum 255), which are separated by dots. Example: 172.16.255.2.
  • IPv6 (Internet Protocol v. 6) – an address recorded in 128-bit format. It has the form of 8 groups, each of which contains 4 hexadecimal digits separated by colons. In this case, it is permissible to omit the leading zero groups, which are in a row, and replace them with a double colon, however, in one address only one such simplification is possible. Example: 2001: 0da8: 11a4: 08d6: 1f84: 8a3e: 07a1: 655d.

” Know about 192.168.1.1 IP Address to Configure Router “

IP Address Structure

In general, an IP address consists of two parts (ID numbers): a network and a specific host within it. To distinguish them in a complete record, use classes or masks.

To access the Internet, it is necessary that the IP belongs to another block or that a server exists on the local network where the internal address is changed to an external one. For this purpose, proxies or NAT’s are used. To access the Internet, the address is provided by the provider or the regional Internet registrar.

what is ip address

By default, a router can enter several different networks. Each port has a personal IP address. Accordingly, the same principle of operation applies to specific computers that can support a different number of network connections.

Types of IP Addresses

Depending on the method of use

External. He is “white”, public or global. Used during internet access. Such an IP address is unique and it is under it that the device is seen on the network. Since the number of such identifiers is limited, NAT technology is used. It allows you to translate network addresses from private to public. For this, routers of a certain type are used.

By external IP addresses, many Internet services track new and returning users. This allows you to collect statistics and do analytics that are important for website promotion.

Interior. It is also a “gray”, local or private IP address of the source. Not used during internet access. It works only within the local network (home or provided by the provider), and access to it can only be obtained by its other participants. For this purpose, the following private IP address ranges are reserved by default:

  • 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255;
  • 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255;
  • 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255.

You must understand that the external IP address is not always permanent. Conversely, IP is often reconfigured from one connection to another.

Depending on the options for determination

Static These are IP addresses that are unchanged (permanent). They are assigned to the device automatically at the time of its connection to the computer network or are manually registered by the user. Static addresses are available for use unlimited time. They can act as an identifier for only one network node. Also sometimes used is the concept of pseudo-static addresses that operate within the same private network.

Dynamic. These are the IP addresses that are issued to the device for a while. They are automatically assigned at the time of connection to the network and have a limited validity period (from the beginning of the session to its end). Dynamic IP addresses are a unique way of masking. Tracking a person accessing the Internet using such an address is technically difficult, in which case professional tools cannot be dispensed with.

What gives a static IP address

A static IP address is useful due to the following features:

  • binding a user to a specific network;
  • tools for organizing a protective data channel;
  • optimization of work with network servers;
  • solving problems related to information technology;
  • simplified work in peer-to-peer networks (for example, with torrents);
  • the use of online services that require a static IP address.

How to find the IP address

Why know your real IP address? You will need it in order to start working with some services that require manual instructions. How to get IP information? There are at least two ways:

  • specialized online services. Using them is very simple: just go to them and after a few seconds the necessary information will appear in the dynamic window;
  • provider. You can find out your IP address by contacting the technical support of the Internet service provider (as an option, in the user’s “Personal Account”).

Remember that along with the IP address other devices (and, accordingly, persons) will be provided with other information, namely: the name and data of the Internet service provider, the name and version of the installed operating system and browser, geographic location. Third-party services see if you are using a proxy server or data protection tools.